- Apr 09, 2018 -
Appearance and properties: colorless liquid with pungent odor.
Solubility: Insoluble in water, soluble in most organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, benzene and acetone.
State: It is a colorless liquid with gasoline smell, insoluble in water, miscible with various organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, acetone and benzene. The solubility in methanol is 100 parts of methanol and 57 parts of cyclohexane can be dissolved. (25°C).
Volatile and extremely flammable, vapor and air form an explosive mixture, explosion limit 1.3 ~ 8.3% (volume). Case of fire, high fever can easily explode. Contact with oxidants reacts strongly and even causes combustion. In a fire place, heated containers have a risk of explosion. Its vapour is heavier than air, and it can spread to relatively far places in the lower places. When it encounters fire, it will ignite.
It is relatively stable to acids and bases, does not react with moderate concentrations of nitric acid or mixed acids at low temperatures, and nitrifies with dilute nitric acid in sealed tubes above 100°C to produce nitrocyclohexane. Under platinum or palladium catalysis, dehydrogenation occurs above 350°C to produce benzene. Isomerization occurs at a high temperature together with alumina, molybdenum sulfide, cobalt, nickel, and aluminum to produce methylgermane. It is isomerized to methylcyclopentane with aluminum trichloride under mild conditions.
Cyclohexane can also undergo an oxidation reaction, and the main products obtained under different conditions are different. For example, when air is oxidized at 185 to 200° C. and 10 to 40 atmospheres, 90% of cyclohexanol is obtained. If a cobalt salt of a fatty acid or a manganese salt is used as a catalyst and is oxidized with air at 120 to 140C and 18 to 24 atmosphere, a mixture of cyclohexanol and cyclohexanone is obtained. Cyclohexane is directly oxidized with air, concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide at high temperature to obtain adipic acid. Oxidation in the presence of oxides of palladium, molybdenum, chromium, manganese is carried out to give maleic acid. Halogen is generated by halogen and ultraviolet radiation. It reacts with nitrosyl chloride to produce cyclohexanone. Cyclohexane is reacted with ethylene using aluminum trichloride as a catalyst to produce ethylcyclohexane, dimethylhydrazine, diethylcyclohexane, tetramethylcyclohexane, and the like.