- Mar 25, 2018 -
Organic solvents are a large class of organic compounds that are widely used in life and production.
Small molecular weight, liquid at room temperature
. Organic solvents include various types of substances such as paraffins, olefins, alcohols, aldehydes, amines, esters, ethers, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogenated hydrocarbons, terpene hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, heterocyclic compounds, nitrogen-containing compounds, and sulfur-containing compounds. And so on, most of them are toxic to the human body.
It is found in paints, adhesives, paints, and cleaners. Organic solvents are often used, for example,
Styrene, perchloroethylene, trichloroethylene, ethylene glycol ether, and triethanolamine.
Organic solvents are organic compounds that dissolve some water-insoluble substances (such as oils, waxes, resins, rubbers, dyes, etc.) and are characterized by being liquid at normal temperature and pressure and having a large volatility.
In the dissolution process, there is no change in the nature of the solute and the solvent.
Types of Organic Solvents: There are many types of organic solvents and they can be divided into 10 categories according to their chemical structure: 1 Aromatic hydrocarbons: benzene, toluene, xylene, etc. 2 Aliphatic hydrocarbons: pentane, hexane, octane (3) Alicyclic hydrocarbons: cyclohexane, cyclohexanone, toluene cyclohexanone, etc.; 4 halogenated hydrocarbons: chlorobenzene, dichlorobenzene, dichloromethane, etc.; 5 alcohols: methanol, ethanol, isopropanol; Etc.; 6 ethers: ether, propylene oxide, etc.; 7 esters: methyl acetate, ethyl acetate, propyl acetate, etc.; 8 ketones: acetone, methyl butanone, methyl isobutyl ketone, etc.; Alcohol derivatives:
Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether, ethylene glycol monoethyl ether, ethylene glycol monobutyl ether
Etc; 10 others: acetonitrile, pyridine, phenol, etc.
(1) Acidic Solvents: These solvents give protons stronger than protons, such as formic acid and sulfuric acid.
(2) Basic solvents: Solvents with strong proton acceptability, such as ethylenediamine (NH2CH2CH2NH2).
(3) Amphoteric solvents: Solvents that give equal protons and protons, such as water, methanol, and ethanol.
(4) Inert Solvents: Solvents that neither give protons nor accept protons, such as benzene, chloroform, etc.